Testimony from experts and peers with first hand experience
Details and evidence need to be directly relevant to the main points they support
Misplaced supporting materials are confusing to listeners
words or phrases that help a speech flow from one main point to the next
Four types of connectives.
an indication when you are moving from one idea to the next
can be as simple as "Another ..."
chronological, spatial, and causal ordering can create natural transitions
parallel language can reinforce both the transitions and the main point
Without transitions, a speech will seem disjointed and uncoordinated.
let the audience know what the speaker will take up next.
its a fundamental rule of presentation:
tell them what you are going to tell them
and tell them what you told them:
especially useful when a speaker finishes a complex or important point.
indicate of exactly where a speaker is in the speech
can be numerical (žFirst,Ó žSecond,Ó žThird,Ó etc.).
Questions work well
So do reinforcing phrases like "Be sure to keep this in mind," and "Above all, you need to know",
help the audience to remember both your logic and your main points
also useful if you want to give your speech without notes
in Aristotle's time, the norm
before paper, memory was all we had to remember things
we used rhyme, rhythm, song and story patterns to help us remember
stories are a memory aid.
They help you and your audience remember
They set up chronological, spatial, and causal organizations in your speech
rhyme and poetry can be a memory aid
compelling language helps us remember
memory mnemonics help us remember
my acronym for the stages of the listening process (next week)
Stop what you are doing
Tend to the speaker
Organize what they are saying for yourself
Respond with paraphrases and questions
helps you see the full scope and content of the speech at a glance.
create a coherent structure for the speech.
it can be useful to create two different outlines for your speech
First, create a preparation outline
a detailed outline used to plan a speech
What will be said in the introduction.
What main points will be used and how they will be stated and supported.
What will be said in the conclusion.
Guidelines for creating a preparation outline
Start with a specific statement of purpose
Second, specify the central idea or thesis
You'll want to use this at the end of your introduction
Clearly label the introduction, body and conclusion of speech in your outline
Use a consistent notation in your outline
Outline mode in Microsoft Word and other word processors will do this for you
State main points and subpoints in full sentences
Label transitions, internal summaries, and internal previews
Include a bibliography.
Give the speech a title
Brief but suggestive.
Be creative. An entertaining title will motivate you and may suggest useful memory devices
Second, create a speaking outline
A brief outline used to deliver a speech.
Intended to help you remember what to say.
The essential structure and content of the speech
key words and phrases from the preparation outline.
essential statistics and quotations the speaker does not want to forget.
cues to direct and sharpen a speaker's delivery.
guidelines for speaking outlines.
follow the same visual outline used in the preparation outline.
Leave in at least a word or two for every point in your prepaation outline.
make sure the speaking outline is easy to read
Use a larger font if it will help you read it as you
Use color, italics, boldface, etc to highlight different kinds of information
be as brief as possible.
the minimum necessary to jog your memory and and keep you on track.
Include cues for delivering the speech.
highlight key ideas that require special vocal emphasis.
add prompts for delivery like "slow down," "pause", and "louder.Ó
Introducing and Concluding your speech
Effective introductions and conclusions are important
An effective introduction
creates a favorable first impression
boosts your self-confidence for the rest of the speech.
An effective conclusion
emphasizes main points.
creates a favorable final impression.
Four objectives of a speech introduction
Gain attention and interest of audience.
Reveal the topic.
Establish your credibility and goodwill
Preview the body of the speech.
Two functions of a speeches conclusion
To signal the end of the speech.
To reinforce the central idea of the speech.
Approaches to gaining attention and interest of audience.
Relate topic to audience.
Show the importance of the topic.
Startle the audience.
Can be highly effective, but the startling material must be directly related to the speech.
Question the audience.
Questions should be firmly related to the content of the speech.
Begin with a quotation.
Can add depth, human interest, or humor.
Most effective if short: no longer than a sentence or two.
Tell a story.
May be the most effective method.
Story must be delivered well.
Other methods of gaining attention include
referring to the occasion
inviting audience participation
using audio equipment or visual aids
relating to a previous speaker, and beginning with humor.
Approaches to establishing your credibility and goodwill
Show you have the audienceŪs best interests in mind.
Preview the body of the speech.
Clearly state the topic
Tell the audience what to listen for
Preview statements provide a smooth lead-in to the body of the speech.
Approaches to signaling the end of the speech.
A brief verbal cue such as žIn conclusionÓ or žOne last thought.Ó
Manner of delivery.
A crescendo ending builds in power and intensity.
A dissolve ending allows the final words to fade a reverberate, stirring the emotions.
Four ways to reinforce the the central idea of the speech.
Summarize the main points of the speech.
Conclude with a quotation.
End with a dramatic statement.
Refer back to the introduction of the speech.
These methods can be used in combination
Five tips for preparing an effective introduction
The introduction should usually be relatively brief.
Look for potential introductory material as you research your speech.
Don't worry about exact wording of introduction until body of speech is done.
But then work out introduction in detail.
Four tips for preparing an effective conclusion
Look for potential concluding materials as you research your speech.
Conclude with a bang instead of a whimper.
Do not be long-winded in the conclusion.
Prepare the content and delivery of their conclusions with special care.
Went over sources of stock due diligence information and the meaning of various stock indicators during class.
Class ended with a group exercise. If you weren't there you didn't do well on it. Better to show up.
Part 1 in groups
Look over your exams together
I have indicated the cor4rect answers
Figure out why the right answer is the right answer
If you can't, save it aside. I'll poll groups in part 2
Ask me about right answers you don't understand
Do not dispute answers. I will rudely stop such discussion
Do not note that I marked your exam wrong. See me after class for that
Do not argue about anything. There is no time for that. See me after class if you feel strongly.
Unless otherwise noted, the contents of this page
were written by participants on the Media Space Wiki, operated by Davis Foulger,
and should be cited accordingly. For example (APA): Foulger, D. and other
participants. (September 18, 2015). Bus Prof Comm Fall2013 Sn11. MediaSpaceWiki. Retrieved on from