- Adler & Rodman, Chapter 5 and 12
Organizing your speech (Reiterated)
- A speech has a beginning, a middle, and an end
- Each part is important
- Each serves different purposes
- And while the organization is not all that different than the material we would use in a term paper
- Speeches are a different medium than term papers
- They are useful for different things
- And different kinds of materials are effective in each
- The introduction
- Is the place where you group the audiences attention
- And tell them what you are going to do
- Provide a compelling rational for doing the speech
- Provide a thesis
- Outline your argument
- The middle
- This is where you make your case
- You want three to five different arguments that support your thesis
- And some evidence for each.
- The conclusion
- Review your thesis
- Review your arguments
- Drive home your point
- Index Card Assignment 5 due today
- How do you know when its your turn to talk in a conversation.
- Some estimate that 65% to 90% of meaning occurs via non-verbal communication
- Big numbers. How do we get there
- First approach: Is a picture worth a thousand words?
- Counter: Can a word be worth a thousand pictures?
- Perhaps a sign or symbol is worth a thousand memories
- Language (semiotics) gives us access to experience (phenomenology)
- Semiosis triggers phenomenal recollection
- A picture may be worth a thousand words, but its not how we get there.
- Second approach: What kind of non-verbal communication is associated with Instant Messenger?
- What do we see?
- Fonts, color, font size
- How long we wait to respond (timing)
- Buddy icons
- Low speed compared with emoticons
- Like the difference between clothes and facial expression
- Language choice and abbreviations
- If we can find this much non-verbal in a written medium, can we understand how easy it is to find that 65% to 90% of meaning in interpersonal is non-verbal
- Some variations on non-verbal codes
- Kinesics - gesture, posture and body movement
- Eye contact
- Facial Expression (Smiles, Frowns, Blushes, etc
- Vocalics and paralanguage/Vocal cues (one, pitch, pauses, pacing)
- Proxemics/Personal Space and Territoriality (manipulation of space)
- intimate distance (up to 18 inches)
- personal distance (18 inches to 4 feet)
- social distance (4 to 12 feet)
- public distance (12 feet or more)
- Artifacts/Appearance and Accessories
- Challenges of non-verbal Communication
- We use non-verbal communication for various purposes
- Communicating attitudes and feelings (affect displays)
- Detecting Inconsistency
- Non-0verbal is often considered more believable
- via behavior side effects (adaptors)
- Enhancing meaning (illustrators)
- Communicating content (emblems)
- Communicating relationship
- Regulating interaction (regulators)
- How do we know when its our turn to talk
- Mostly anticipation
- But we make mistakes
- Talking at the same time
- Floor fights
- Long pauses matter
- They most often correspond to topic shifts
- But often occur, without interruption, when we talk
- But we do control the floor non-verbally
- Explicitly passing the floor
- gesture (hand motion, head nods)
- eye contact
- facial expression
A game: Two truths and a lie.
How do we know when someone is lying
Observations on how we know its our turn to talk
- Pauses, voice inflections (questions and closure), eye contact, head nods, and gesture all matter
- But in conversation analysis research we find that:
- most of the time pauses don't predict at all
- most exchanges are as rapid as a frame in film
- .05 seconds from one persons end to anothers start
- compare with
- .03 seconds for old movies (18 frames per second)
- .025 seconds for current moves (24 frames per second)
- .02 seconds for television (30 frames per second)
- .01 seconds for IMAX (60 frames per second
- and faster than normal human response time
- .1 seconds to get to the brake of a car
- We anticipate when we should talk
- but we still use non-verbal to do it.
Observations on using non-verbal communication to detect lying
- We aren't very good at detecting when other people lie
- It is usually the case with this assignment that classes detect the lies about half the time. That's chance. One might as well say we can't do it at all.
- To a certain extent that's true. No spy has ever been caught using a lie detector test.
- Lie detector tests are worse than useless
- That cast guilt on the innocent
- And let the most guilty go free
- The same is probably true for detecting lies from non-verbal behavior
- But it is also true that we do correctly catch people in lies
- Indeed, tests show that women do it better than men
- And everybody does it better when they are focused on something else
- which suggests our unconscious lie detector equipment is better than our conscious equipment
- It remains, however, that the biggest reason for this is that we are very good at lying
- We practice, starting very young
- And we never really stop
- It is easy to catch us lying when we are three
- But by five we've already started to master the art of looking mommy in the eye and saying "I didn't take the cookie"
- Index Card Assignment 6 due today
- List three media from the following list that seem interesting to you: http://davis.foulger.info/research/200plusMedia.htm. For each medium you select, list two things that you would like to know about.
- Stage Fright
- Types of Delivery
- Practicing the Speech
- Guidelines for Delivery
- Visual Aspects of Delivery
- Auditory Aspects of Delivery
- Offering Constructive Criticism
Index Card Assignment 7 due next time: Divide your life into four stages:
- Elementary School
- Junior High and High School
Who was your best friend during each stage? How did you meet?
Assignment 8 due next time (use one or two pages to do this): Select one medium of communication. Research it. Come back next time with an annotated bibliography in APA format of five references that describe or otherwise talk about your medium in detail. Annotations should immediate. See http://www.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-crib.html and ManualOfStyle for more detail of APA format. Annotations generally immediately follow references as follows.
- Author, First. (1998). Title of Book. Publisher Information. Annotations concerning book.
- Name, Another. (2003). Article Title. Journal name. Journal information. Annotations concerning article.
- Webauthor, Nameof. (2004). Page Title. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from http://website.com/pagename.htm. Annotations concerning web page.
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