- Derivative 3: Institutional Theory (Philip Selznick)
- Decisions by and about organizations are not always rational.
- Differences between organizations are important
- Organizations are something different than the sum of their participants.
- The relationship between an organization and its environment matters
- An institutions success depends on the relationships it builds with its community. (a public relations approach :-)
- Index Card Assignment 3 (due today)
- Pick an organization. What value (product or service) does it create (this can be generic; for instance records for Universal, entertainment for Disney). What stakeholders does the company have?
The Human Resources Approach
- The conditions that foster individual growth are also good for the organization.
- Recommendation: Find ways to merge the goals of the individual with those of the organization.
- ?McGregor's theory Y
- Theory X
- People dislike and avoid work
- Adequate effort entails coercion, control, and direction
- People prefer direction, have little ambition, and prefer to be directed.
- Theory Y
- Work is as natural as play or rest
- People will self-direct work to which they are committed
- Commitment is a function of the rewards of achievement
- People not only accept responsibility, but actively seek it.
- Imagination and creativity are widely dispersed in the population.
- In modern organizations, the potential of the individual is only partially realized.
- Likert's Participative Management
- System I - exploitive/authoritative
- System II - benevolent/authoritative
- System III - consultive
- System IV - participative
- Human resources approaches, in general, favor self-managed teams.
- One way to understand the difference between these approaches
- Classical Management Theory assumes that managers talk and employees listen
- Human Relations Approaches assume that employees respond when managers listen to them
- Human Resources Approaches assume that employees are most productive when they listen to each other
- Regardless of approach, however, listening is important
- the question is not if so much as who
- There is general agreement in most companies that listening is a critical skill
- for managers and employees
- but we aren't very good at it
- the average person can only remember half of what they here immediately after they hear it
- They are unlikely to remember more than a quarter
- There is general consensus that we can learn to listen better
- Two fundamental sets of issues
- Awareness of the factors that lead to good listening
- We think much faster than we talk
- This leads us to think about other things
- We often focus on facts rather than ideas
- Facts are usually meant to illustrate ideas and we may miss the point. This is a real risk in note-taking.
- We listen emotionally
- We often hear what we want to hear and miss other things
- Structure the listening environment to encourage good listening
- Taking advantage of the speed of thought
- Try to anticipate where the speaker may be going
- Focus on and weigh the points the speaker makes. Are there alternatives? Is this valid?
- Periodically review and summarize where the speaker has been
- Look for what is between the lines
- Look for the big ideas
- Try to focus your summaries on the ideas rather than the evidence
- Work to counter emotions
- Withhold evaluation
- Look for the negative evidence
- One might think of good listening as a STORage process: Stop, Tend, Organize, and Respond
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